Posts tagged “cicindela

Cicindelidia melissa: A new species from southeastern Arizona and Mexico

Just published: Duran and Roman described a new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidia melissa Duran & Roman 2014, from high elevation (>2000 m.) Ponderosa pine forests in Chiracahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona and the Mexican states of Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango.

zk_article_4338-11 © Daniel P. Duran, Stephen J. Roman. Reproduced here under the terms of CC BY 4.0

From the paper:

This species can be distinguished from all other similar Cicindelidia by its dark green-violet abdominal venter with the two apical segments dull orange or orange-brown, a brassy-cupreous head and pronotum with metallic blue reflections in sulci, small shallow subsutural foveae present in most individuals, and microserrate elytral apices. It inhabits rocky upland soils in ponderosa pine forests above 2000 m.

C. sedecimpunctata (Klug, 1834) has an entirely orange-red to orange-brown abdominal venter, a more uniform dull brown dorsal coloration, and lacks apparent subsutural foveae. It also differs from the new species by inhabiting muddy ground at nearly any elevation. C. nebuligera (Bates, 1890) has dark elytral infuscations that surround the middle band, and lacks elytral apical microserrations. It may be found in similar habitats, but is apparently allopatric with the new species and does not appear to be restricted to elevations above 2000 m.

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Left: Dorsal habitus of male (holotype); Right: Dorsal habitus of female (allotype). © Daniel P. Duran, Stephen J. Roman. Reproduced here under the terms of CC BY 4.0

 

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Top: Lateral habitus of male (holotype); Bottom: Lateral habitus of female (allotype). © Daniel P. Duran, Stephen J. Roman. Reproduced here under the terms of CC BY 4.0

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Blight?

[The Committee] accepts the Study identifying approximately 2,146 acres within the unincorporated municipal service area (UMSA), which lie entirely in Commission District 9 represented by Commissioner Dennis C. Moss, to be slum and blighted.

Miami-Dade Legislative Item 142509

This month a Miami-Dade county committee approved a resolution from county commissioner Dennis Moss to designate the Richmond Heights pine rocklands (the largest fragement of pine rocklands outside the Everglades National Park and the only habitat of the Miami tiger beetle) along with the surrounding lands “a slum or blighted area.” This resolution stemmed from a county-commitioned study supplied by the firm Calvin, Giordano & Associates which built a tenuous case that slum or blight conditions exist in and around the Richmond Heights pine rocklands. The Committee forwarded the resolution to the full Board of County Commissioners for consideration:

It is recommended that the Board of County Commissioners … consider taking the following actions:

4. The Board declares and finds that there is a need for a community redevelopment agency to function and carry out the community redevelopment purposes of the Act; and

5. The Board directs the County Mayor or the County Mayor’s designee to prepare a plan of redevelopment for the Area, and to submit the plan of redevelopment to the Board for approval after notice and public hearing.

Should a community redevelopment agency be created, the Area covered will make it the second largest in the County, with only the North Miami Community Redevelopment Agency larger at 3,540 acres. The Study includes the Zoo Miami, Coast Guard, and the former University of Miami properties.

Miami-Dade Legislative Item 142509

The goal in establishing the existence of slum or blight conditions and subsequent community redevelopment agency (CRA) is to create a special tax district¹ which will channel public funds into development of the site. The development in question is the $930 million theme park, Miami Wilds. As I have written previously the construction of this theme park (in its present incarnation) is a serious and unacceptable threat to the Richmond Heights pine rocklands and the survival of numerous endangered species, including the Miami tiger beetle, a candidate for emergency state and federal protection.

The developers, Miami Wilds LLC, have already received approval for an initial $13.5 million in bond funds to replicate the US Coast Guard communications tower array which currently stands in the footprint of the theme park. However, use of this land requires Federal permission and approval of the developer’s plans; approval which has not yet been given.

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The Richmond Heights pine rocklands have survived comparatively unscathed since the since the early development of the site in the 1940s and these lands represent a major portion of the 1.8% of pine rocklands left outside the Everglades National Park. Any further development seriously jeopardizes the rocklands, chiefly by fragmenting the remaining habitat and stifling fires, a necessary ecological cycle for the continued health of the habitats.

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Proper management of pine rockland fragments includes prescribed burning (which can generate heavy amounts of smoke)… Construction of hospitals, schools, apartments, and hotels around [rocklands] should be discouraged because of conflicts with smoke generation during prescribed fires. URS Corporation et al 2007

These current plans for Miami Wilds and Coral Reef Commons will severely fragment the remaining Richmond Heights pine rocklands. Once these rocklands are surrounded by heavy development any prescribed burning will be extraordinarily unlikely.

… maximize open space and limit pollution runoff [around rocklands]. URS Corporation et al 2007

A secondary impact of any development is that without sufficient buffer areas around the rocklands the new fragments will be highly susceptible to pollution and encroachment of non-native and invasive animals and plants from the surrounding.

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The current plans for development do not adequately conserve these imperiled rocklands and are not a reasonable option for the continued survival of this unique habitat and its inhabitants. Over 98% of the Miami-Dade rocklands have been lost to development. There are better options for utilization of the non-rockland areas, options which do not fragment or destroy rocklands, alternatives which provide adequate buffers to facilitate the necessary management of the habitat.

The “blight” resolution has been forwarded to the Board of County Commissioners for consideration and a full public hearing on January 21st.

Local residents are planning a rally for the rocklands on January 17th

The Center for Biological Diversity has a letter to the Miami Board of County Commissioners which you can sign and send in support of preserving the pine rocklands.

View the resolution here. Read the Calvin, Giordano & Associates study here.

Also see the Miami Herald article on the this latest development.

Notes

¹In designating an area as a CRA governing bodies are afforded the opportunity to leverage public financing for the purpose of land acquisition, demolition, housing and infrastructure improvements, environmental remediation, neighborhood enhancement and other similar activities. This is accomplished through a funding mechanism known as Tax Increment Financing (TIF). From MetroZoo Finding of Necessity Study 2014 Update

References

URS Corporation, The Institute for Regional Conservation, and Muller and Associates, Inc. 2007. Miami Dade County Environmentally Endangered Lands Program Management Plan, Part II: Management of specific habitat types, Chapter 1: The pine rockland habitat. Submitted to Environmentally Endangered Lands Program, Miami, Florida by URS Corporation. K.A. Bradley, G.D. Gann, M.J. Barry, contributors.


Emergency protection sought for Miami tiger beetle

Today the Center for Biological Diversity filed emergency petitions to protect the exceedingly rare Miami tiger beetle, Cicindela floridana, a South Florida pine rocklands endemic, as a protected species under Florida law and as endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act.

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Pine rocklands once stretched from the Florida Keys up to the northern edge of Miami-Dade County, but widespread urbanization and agricultural development destroyed the majority of Floridian pine rockland. This fire-dependent community, found on limestone outcroppings, is comprised of a sparse canopy dominated by Florida slash pine, Pinus elliotti var. densa, and a varied understory. Today, only a fraction of the original Miami pine rockland habitat remains; by some estimates as little as 1.8%. Moreover, most of these remaining areas are quite small and often widely separated by miles of heavy development.

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The pine rockland habitats are home to many endemic species, many of which are listed as endangered including the Florida Bonneted bat (Eumops floridanus), Bartram’s hairstreak (Strymon acis bartrami), Florida leafwing (Anaea troglodyta floridalis), Florida brickell-bush (Brickellia mosieri), deltoid spurge (Chamaesyce deltoidea deltoidea), Carter’s small-flowered flax (Linum carteri carteri), tiny polygala (Polygala smallii).

Today many of these remaining pine rocklands and their inhabitants now face another danger; due to the lack of fire, both native and non-native vegetation are taking over the habitats which incrementally transitioning to hardwood hammocks.

Of greatest concern is the Richmond Heights pine rocklands, where the Miami tiger beetle was rediscovered in 2007. In addition to vegetation encroachment, there are plans to develop significant portions of the pinelands. The first, and most immediate, is Ram Realty’s plan to develop and 88-acre parcel of rocklands purchased from the University of Miami.

Microsoft Word - MTB petition.docx
While Ram has set aside some of the land for nature preserves, any development seriously jeopardizes the rocklands by fragmenting the remaining habitat and stifling fires, a necessity for the continued health of the habitats. The second, and most expansive in scope, is the county’s plan to develop a major amusement park in and around the rocklands.

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This plan calls for major development including a four lane highway and major transportation corridor through the rocklands. This development will irrevocably damage all of the Richmond pine rocklands, through fragmentation, pollution, and stifling fires within the remaining habitat.

Both development pose real and immediate risks to endangered and rare species, including the Miami tiger beetle. These developments will results in the destruction and degradation of pine rocklands and will kill endangered and candidate species including the adults and larvae of the Miami tiger beetle.

Even before the current plans for development the Miami tiger beetle (Cicindela floridana) was a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species of concern. Additionally, Knisley et al (2014) assigned the Miami tiger beetle a 1+ grade, their “highest level of rarity and/or threats” in a comprehensive review of the conservation status of United States tiger beetles. With over 98% of the potential former habitat gone and direct threats to the only remaining habitat this species is in need of urgent action to prevent its extinction.

The Center for Biological Diversity’s press release is available at their website.

References

Knisley, C., M. Kippenhan, and D. Brzoska. 2014. Conservation status of United States tiger beetles. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews. 7: 93-145.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan: Appendix C. Species of Concern and their Associated Community Types in South Florida.

URS Corporation, The Institute for Regional Conservation, and Muller and Associates, Inc. 2007. Miami Dade County Environmentally Endangered Lands Program Management Plan, Part II: Management of specific habitat types, Chapter 1: The pine rockland habitat. Submitted to Environmentally Endangered Lands Program, Miami, Florida by URS Corporation. K.A. Bradley, G.D. Gann, M.J. Barry, contributors.


The type locality of Cicindela floridana

Readers of this blog may be familiar with the story of Cicindela floridana, a beautifully iridescent tiger beetle presumed extinct but rediscovered in 2007. This beetle is only known from pine rocklands, a habitat once common in southern Florida but only 1.8% of the original rocklands remain today (outside of the Everglades National Park).

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Frank N. Young Jr. collected this species while he was an 18 year old student and gives only vague locality information on his labels. In the rediscovery paper Brzoska, Knisley, and Slotten note that:

The exact type locality for var. floridana is problematic. Cartwright (1939) gives the locality as Miami, Florida based on Young’s label. In the 1980s, R. L. Huber, in an attempt to locate this form contacted Young who told him the specimens were collected in the vicinity of Gratigny Road while he was studying land snails in the sandy hammocks. …. Knisley also contacted Young in the early 1990s and learned that the specimens were taken in the vicinity of Barry [University].

My curiosity piqued, I combed through  Frank Young’s publications and found a 1951 paper “Vanishing and extinct colonies of tree snails, Liguus fasciatus, in the vicinity of Miami, Florida.” In this paper Young includes a map of his study sites, which are tantalizingly close to Gratigny Road and Barry University (located south of Gratigny St. and Miami Ave). If there is a connection between Young’s early snail hunting and this 1951 paper and we might be able to pinpoint the type locality of C. floridana.

Young map

 Further on Young writes:

The distribution of the hammocks around Arch Creek shows the same general pattern as those around New River to the north or Little River to the south. That is, the hammocks occur along the margins of the stream or its estuary, across the rocklands of the East Coast ridge, and fan out along the edges of the transverse glade. This pattern is apparently maintained by the nature of the soils and the periodic fires which sweep the bordering rocky pinelands and encroach upon the edges of the hammocks.

This paper suggests that the area around Gratigny Road and Barry University may have been pine rocklands and substantially narrows the potential area in which Young may have collected the type series in 1934. In this 1947 topographic map you can see that the area around (and north of) Gratigny Road and Barry University is slightly elevated from the surrounding, consistent with (but not necessarily indicative of) pine rocklands habitat.

N Miami 1947

Almost convinced, I searched the aerial photography of Florida collections at the University of Florida Digital Collections and found several index images which included my area of interest. I was unable to find any imagery taken earlier than 1940; however, even the 1940 photograph confirmed my hunch. In this image the land north and west of (what would become) Barry University and Gratigny Road there appears to a partially isolated stand of pines.

1940

This location matches Young’s comments to Huber and Knisley; Gratigny Road runs through these pines which extend into what would become Barry University. But, even in the six years after Young collected the type series of C. floridana there appear to have been significant new development visible (including Barry University, founded in 1940) and the areas east and southeast of the canal are already heavily built up.

This fall I received a note from Knisley, forwarded from Huber, with an exciting message. Huber had found a detailed entry from his collecting notes; this gave an exact location for Young’s specimens:

30 May 1972, visited the intersection of Miami Ave and Gratigny Rd (=119th St). Frank Young said that he had taken floridana in the NE corner of that intersection.

Bingo! Here is the type locality of C. floridana in detail:

Bingo

The next image (showing the area just north of Gratigny St.) is from 1947 and the pines appear to have been largely cut down and the area has been divided up into parcels. I find it unlikely that C. floridana would have occurred at the type locality in 1947, though  perhaps to the west where there appear to still be some pines standing.

1947

The development dramatically increases in 1949-50 and the whole area is largely housing by 1950. Any rocklands habitat that remained after this time was certainly too fragmented and poor quality to sustain a population of C. floridana.

1950

References:

Brzoska, D., C.B. Knisley, and J. Slotten. 2011. Rediscovery of Cicindela scabrosa floridana Cartwright and its elevation to species level. Insect Mundi 2011 162:1-7.

URS Corporation, The Institute for Regional Conservation, and Muller and Associates, Inc. 2007. Miami Dade County Environmentally Endangered Lands Program Management Plan, Part II: Management of specific habitat types, Chapter 1: The pine rockland habitat. Submitted to Environmentally Endangered Lands Program, Miami, Florida by URS Corporation. K.A. Bradley, G.D. Gann, M.J. Barry, contributors.

Young, F. N. 1951. Vanishing and extinct colonies of tree snails, Liguus fasciatus, in the vicinity of Miami, Florida. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 531: 21 p.


why hello there…

This is a third instar larvae of Cicindela albissima – the Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle. I found the larvae to be virtually unapproachable during the day, but at night, with a little patience, I could get right up to their burrows. The head and pronotal coloration of the larvae is quite vivid – one of the most colorful that I’ve seen.

I photographed this individual and many more while I was doing some fieldwork back in 2010. I’ll post a best of from that trip in the coming month, if time permits.


Cicindela galapagoensis

A tiger beetle is hardly the first organism that comes to mind when the Galapagos Islands are mentioned. However, the Islands are home to a single endemic member of this subfamily, Cicindela galapagoensis.

Cicindela galapagoensis was first collected by then Stanford student F. X. Williams while he was serving as an entomologist on the California Academy of Sciences 1905-1906 expedition to the Galapagos. It was over ten years until this species was formally described, though this distinction went to German entomologist Walther Horn. In Coleoptera of the Galapagos Islands E.C. Van Dyke curtly mentions: “A tiger beetle collected by Williams was described by Dr. Walther Horn … as Cicindela galapagoensis. It had been submitted to him for his opinion.”

This species is represented by two color forms: a dark and a pale form. As one might suspect, this variation has led to some taxonomic confusion. The dark form of C. galapagoensis was described under the name Cicindela vonhageni in 1938, by American Museum of Natural History curator A.J. Mutchler, from 7 specimens collected by W. von Hagen. Additionally, a subspecies, C. galapagoensis discolorata, was described in 1967 from a single specimen collected on Genovesa Island. However, in 1976, Hans Reichardt synonymized vonhageni and galapagoensis discolorata with galapagoensis after finding evidence for only a single species based on the presence of intermediate forms in a large series of specimens.

Cicindela galapagoensis has been collected from seven major islands¹ where it inhabits sand beaches, mud flats, and salt tidal marshes. The adults have been collected at night with no reported observations of activity in the daytime. The larvae have been described and are found in similar habitats to the adults.

While C. galapagoensis is the sole endemic species of tiger beetle in the archipelago, a mainland species, Cicindela trifasciata was apparently introduced onto Santa Cruz Island and subsequently spread to several sites on during an extreme El Niño event in 1982-1983.  Since the apparent introduction, the trifasciata populations have grown to vastly out number the endemic speceis on the order of hundreds to one. As expected, the number of galapagoensis observed in recent studies has dramatically dropped at the sites where the two species co-occur, almost certainly due to fierce competition for prey and potentially larval habitat.

In addition, Cassola et al. noted that C. galapagoensis was not observed on Genovesa Island and, most distressingly, reported that the species primary habitat on the island, a small sand beach, had been incorporated into the tourist trail. The resultant trampling likely wiped out any larvae and rendered the habitat unsuitable, resulting in the extinction of this population.

Back in January, I have the privilege to spend ten days in the Galapagos. Though I did not see any tiger beetles, one of our stops was the beach at Genovesa, on Darwin Bay. We went ashore just after the equatorial sun rose and I was struck by the traces of human activity. Old graffiti was conspicuously emblazoned on the cliffs and footprints were almost everywhere across the small beach. As we proceeded down the beach the impact of foot traffic became even more apparent.

But, as a whole, Cicindela galapagoensis is not in danger. The Santa Cruz and Genovesa populations are not the rule and most of the species habitat is free from introduced competitors and the menace of human foot traffic. Adequate surveys are needed to assess the extent of tricfasciata colonization and the overall health of C. galapagoensis populations in order to develop management strategies. Ultimately, with careful management, this enigmatic species can continue to thrive.

Notes:

¹ Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristóbal, and Santa Cruz (Peck 2006)

References:

Cassola, F., Roque-Albelo, L., and Desender, K. 2000. Is the Galápagos endemic tiger beetle threatened with extinction? Noticias de Galápagos no. 61: 23–25.

Horn, W. 1915. Coleoptera, Fam. Carabidae, Subfam. Cicindelinae. In P. Wytsman, ed., Genera Insectorum, 82C: 209-487, pl. 16-23.

Mutchler, A.J. 1938. Coleoptera from the Galápagos Islands. American Museum Novitates 981: 1-19.

Van Dyke, E.e. 1953. The Coleoptera of the Galápagos Islands. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 22: 1-181.


Cicindela abdominalis

Back on a late July day I was heading back from a field survey in Maryland’s eastern shore and decided to take a brief detour. I was not far away from a site where I had photographed Cicindela abdominalis back in 2008; however, I was not satisfied with the few shots I had taken and now wanted to take the opportunity to get some better shots.

The location in question, a sandy powerline access road adjacent to a park, was about half an hour away and by the time I arrived at the site the sun was  sinking low in the sky. I was worried the beetles would not be active, but my concern was short lived as I spotted my first beetle within minutes of walking around the site.

This individual was wary, taking flight as I slowly attempted to move closer and I watched as the beetle alit in a sandy patch several feet away. Moving even slower I soon managed to get a shot of the beetle, though the posture of the beetle and the framing of the shot were not quite what I had hoped for.

The beetle seemed to acclimate to my intrusion and darted sideways, out of the camera’s field of view, grabbing a minute ant from the sand and a voraciously masticating it with its powerful jaws. Unfortunately as I repositioned the shot, my flash diffuser brushed against a tall blade of grass and this movement caused the beetle to again take flight.

During my brief search for another subject, I noticed several adult C. punctulata also darting about the sandy patches and taking flight as I approached. Before long I saw another distinctively small C. abdominalis. This time I approach slowly and using the Live view function of my Canon SLR managed a far better shot while holding the camera out a short distance from me.

I continued to attempt shots of a couple more beetles, but none of the results were quite as good. I did manage to get a clear shot of the maculations and characteristically red abdomen of one individual as it turned away from my lens.

By the time I finished taking shots of abdominalis, the sun was dipping behind the trees and I had to begrudgingly pack up my gear and continue down the road back to Virginia.

For more information on this species check out the species page on BugGuide.